Debate in global education

More Schooling and More Learning? Effects of a Three-Year Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Nicaragua after 10 Years

This paper evaluates the long-term effects of conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs on educational attainment and learning for boys (ages 9 to 12) in Nicaragua after 10 years of the program. The study found that the more immediate effects of the program - that boys gained a half-grade increase in schooling and significantly improved both math and language scores - was sustained into early adulthood, indicating the long-term effectiveness of CCT programs.

Relative Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Conditional and Unconditional Cash Transfers for Schooling Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

This paper evaluates and compares the effectiveness of conditional cash transfers (CCTs) and unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) in improving school enrollment, attendance, and test scores in low- and middle-income countries. The research incorporated a review of 35 randomized control trials or quasi-experimental designs published since 1997.

Equal Right, Equal Opportunity: Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities

More than 90 million children worldwide are currently living with a moderate or severe disability. More than any other group, these children are more likely to enroll late, drop out, or altogether miss out on school. For those in school, the poor quality and exclusive nature of the learning environment often exaggerate their situation, especially in low- and middle-income countries. While working to achieve universal primary education (UPE), the global community fails to focus sufficiently on educating disabled children.

School Resources and Educational Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature from 1990 to 2010

This comprehensive literature review of educational outcomes in developing countries provides a meta-analysis of 79 studies conducted between 1990 and 2010. The authors further analyze 43 high-quality papers and provide separate data for 13 randomized experiments. This paper reviews what inputs - including infrastructure, instructional materials, school organization, and teacher characteristics - demonstrate effects on enrollment rates, time in school, and test scores. 

Improving Learning in Primary Schools of Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments

This paper shares the findings of a meta-analysis of 76 randomized experiments administered in developing countries over the last 40 years. In total, this included the effects of 110 different school interventions - including instructional materials, computers or technology, financial incentives, teacher training, and school meals - on language and mathematics scores in primary school students.

Policy Brief: Impacts of Unconditional Cash Transfers

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) studied the effects of an unconditional cash transfer program financed by GiveDirectly in Western Kenya from 2011 to 2012. The study randomized the household recipient (husband or wife), the frequency of distribution (a single payment or monthly installments), and the size of the cash transfer ($300 or $1,100). Findings reveal that recipients do not increase consumption of alcohol or tobacco but spend more on health, education, food, and other social expenses. Despite increased spending, there was no measurable impact on health or education outcomes.

Size and Sources of the Private School Premium in Test Scores in India

This working paper is part of a series by Young Lives and uses longitudinal data from 2002 to 2011 to study the effect of private schooling in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The author estimates value-added models (VAMs) of learning outcomes to isolate the effect of the type of schooling; compares results for different subjects, age groups, languages of instruction, and geographic regions; and identifies the different inputs across private and public schools.

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