This occasonal paper by National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA) is based on a study that was conducted to examine the learners’ achievement level of slum children in the government schools and privately run unrecognised schools. The study tried to find out the achievement scores of Grade I and Grade IV children in language and mathematics. An effort was made to examine the inter-school and intra-school variations in mean percent achievement scores. The study points out the differential achievement scores between the government and unrecognised schools considering the fact that those children are from the same socio-economic background. This study also examines the situation with respect to the home factors, school environment and adequacy of facilities in the selected areas. The association between these factors and learning outcomes is also examined within the stipulated constraints.Finally, the study makes recommendations to improve the educational attainment among the children living in slums.